AHGP Transcription Project


Bourbon County


Bourbon County was formed in the year 1785, and is one of the nine organized by the Virginia legislature before Kentucky became an independent State. It was named in compliment to the Bourbon family of France—a prince of that family, then upon the throne, having rendered the American colonies most important aid, in men and money, in the great struggle for independence. The county is bounded north by Harrison, east by Montgomery, south by Clarke, and west by Fayette. It lies in the heart of the garden of Kentucky, the surface gently undulating, the soil remarkably rich and productive, based on limestone, with red clay foundation. Hemp, corn and wheat are cultivated in the county, and grasses, generally, grow in great luxuriance; but stock appears to be the staple article of commerce. Horses, mules, cattle and hogs, in great numbers, are annually exported. The Bourbon cattle are unsurpassed in beauty, or in the fine quality of their meat, by any in the United States.

Towns
PARIS, the county seat, was established by the Virginia legislature in 1789 under the name of Hopewell, and so called for a year, then Bourbonton for a short time, and in 1790 received its present name. It is the southern terminus of the Maysville and Lexington railroad, Northern Division, and the most important shipping point on the Kentucky Central railroad from Covington to Nicholasville; population in 1870, 2,867, and on January 1, 1873, about 3,500. It has two enterprising weekly newspapers, the Western Citizen, established in 1808 by Joel R. Lyle, published, 1832-67, by Wm. C. Lyle and J. L. Walker, mainly, and now owned by McChesney & Fisher; and the True Kentuckian, established in February, 1866, by John G. Craddock. It is one of the wealthiest and most substantial cities in the state, steadily improving in population and business, and has 9 handsome churches and many elegant private residences. A new court house, to cost $100,000, is in process of erection on the site of the old one, which was built in 1797-99, and destroyed by fire May 8, 1872.
MILLERSBURG, on the Hinkston creek, and the M. & L. E. east, 8 miles north east of Paris, was established in 1817, and named after John Miller; is the seat of the Kentucky Wesleyan University,* and of a fine Methodist female college; population in 1870, 675.
NORTH MIDDLETOWN, 10 miles southeast of Paris, population in 1870, 320.
FLAT ROCK, 8 miles east of Paris;
CENTERVILLE, 8 miles west;
CLINTONVILLE, 9 miles south;
RUDDELL'S MILLS, 7 miles north;
JACKSONVILLE, 9 miles north west
Houston, Hutchison's, Shawhan, and Stony Point, stations on Kentucky Central Railroad.


Wesleyan University, Millersburg, Kentucky


Members of the Legislature from Bourbon County, since 1859.

Senate
John A. Prall, 1859-67;
Wellington A. Cunningham, 1873-77.

House of Representatives
Oscar H. Burbridge, 1859-61;
Brutus J. Clay, 1861-63;
Richard H. Hanson, 1863-65;
Robert T. Davis, 1865-69;
Edward Myall, 1869-71;
Cassius M. Clay, Jr., 1871-73.


Main Street, Paris, Kentucky



The First Agricultural Fair in Bourbon County was held in 1818. The present association held its first fair in 1836 and regularly every year since, except two years during the war. Many fairs in other counties, begun in 1837 to 1840, died in 1841-42, during the disastrous financial times.

Maj. Daniel Hibler, in 1829, began to sell stock at auction in Paris, on county court days, the first man who introduced this now popular system of disposing of stock. He was still actively engaged in it, in December 1872. The First Distillery in Bourbon County was near where the manufactory of W. H. Thomas stood in 1869; and was erected, about 1790, by Jacob Spears and others from Pennsylvania. Two Negroes cut down trees and hauled them to the distillery, while Mr. Spears cut the timber into suitable sizes, distilled, went to mill, and also attended a fine stallion he had brought with him. Others claim that Capt. John Hamilton, who ran away from Pennsylvania on account of his participation in the whisky insurrection, distilled in this region before Mr. Spears. Capt. H. died a few years ago, aged about 100.

The lands in Bourbon are in a high state of cultivation, being all enclosed, and the woodland well set in grass. The soil of the "Caneridge lands" is of a reddish color, which is supposed to be more durable than the black loam, and not so easily affected either by a dry or wet season. Primitive limestone, without any apparent organic remains, occurs in this section of the county in huge masses.

The only salt spring in the county is on the farm of Joseph Wilson, Esq., in the Caneridge neighborhood. It was formerly worked, and is said to be more strongly impregnated than the waters of the Blue Licks. Sulphur and chalybeate springs are common in the county. Lead ore is occasionally found in small quantities, as also an inferior species of iron ore.

The line AB, in the annexed drawing, represents an ancient ditch across a narrow neck of land intercepted in a bend of Stoner, about one and a fourth miles below Paris. The peninsula thus cut off by the ditch, embraces an area of about fifty acres. The figures 1 and 2 represent mounds of earth. The first is situated on the lowest bench of the bottom land, and the other is on the top of the cliff. The mound in the bottom has been opened, and human bones were discovered therein. An old settler of the county has informed me, that a well-defined cause-way, or smaller ditch, was perceptible at the period of the first settlement in the county, which extended from this ditch one and a half miles west to another large mound, on an elevated piece of ground. This latter mound is one of a range or chain of mounds that extend quite across the county, in a north-west by west direction, than which, for telegraphic purposes, their position could hardly have been better selected by the most skillful engineer. Indeed, it is conjectured by some, that beacons were sometimes kindled on their summits, as coals have been found just below the surface, and occasionally, human bones, stone hatchets, spears, arrow points and a peculiar kind of ware.

Above description is for image below. Written in image Scale 50 pcs to the inch.



This draft represents an ancient circular fortification with embrasures at the cardinal points, near the junction of Stoner's and Hinkston's forks of Lickings, six miles north of Paris, near to which is the village of Ruddell's mills, and near the old Huddle's station. No tradition points to the period when, or by whom this entrenchment was made; but being situated upon low ground, subject to overflow, there is reason to suppose, that it has been constructed within the last hundred and fifty years; for if it had been formed anterior to this period, all vestiges of its configuration would have been destroyed by the action of the confluent waters.

Three miles further up Hinkston's fork, there is a similar fortification, with the addition of two mounds; one within, and the other without the circle. Stone axes, hatchets, chisels, dirks, spear and arrow points of flint, also a hatchet of iron, very much corroded with rust, have been found here.

On all of the principal water courses in the county, Indian graves are to be found, sometimes single, but most frequently, several grouped together. Single graves are usually indicated by broad flat stones, set in the ground edgewise around the skeleton; but where a number have been deposited together, rude stone walls were erected around them, and these having fallen inwards, the rocks retain a vertical position, sometimes resembling a rough pavement. Many of these piles appear to be in various stages of decomposition, according to the lapse of time they have been thus exposed to the action of the elements. From the deliberate care that seems to have been bestowed upon their dead, and other indications, it is manifest that at no very remote period, the territory of Bourbon had a native Indian population. In proof of this, the vestiges of a large Indian town are still perceptible near where Pretty-run empties into Strode's creek, on the farm of Peter Hedge. The centre of the site is distinguished by three small mounds ranged in a line; and flanked on either side by the remains of double rows of lodges or huts; and at the distance of about one hundred rods to the eastward, on a bluff of Stoner, was their regular burial ground. At the western extremity of the village, on a slight elevation of black earth or mold, the bones of almost every species of wild animal are to be found, those of the buffalo, the bear and the deer being the most common.

At a short distance from this, on a similar elevation, is where either the funeral pyre or the stake, for the purpose of torturing prisoners was erected, as it is at the spot that coals, ashes and calcined human bones have been found; sad vestiges of their cruel orgies. A variety of ornaments, such as bears' tusks and claws with holes drilled through them, stone medals, shells, etc.; fragments of vases with handles, stone axes, and implements of warfare, have been found in profusion. The growth of the timber on the site, and in its immediate vicinity, fixes within




Mount Lebanon, Residence of Gov. Garrard, near Paris, Kentucky


reasonable certainty the period, when the village ceased to be inhabited. This timber is of the same varieties with that of the primitive stock on the hills, with this singular difference, that the former invariably grew two or three trees from the same roots, and when a portion of them were cut down by the present owner, they exhibited the uniform age of ninety years, counting the annulations. The current supposition is this, that the original growth was cut down by the inhabitants of the village, and after they made their exit, that two or three sprouts had sprung up from the still living roots, among the ruined wigwams, and thus exhibiting a cotemporaneous growth at the present day. However this may be, it is evident that this aboriginal town had a tragic end. In every direction the bones and teeth of its unfortunate inhabitants, corresponding to every age, have been discovered just beneath the surface of the soil; sometimes lying across each other within the foundation of their huts, but most numerously in the bottom below the site of the town, whither perhaps the tide of battle rolled, and the devoted inhabitants met their fate at the hands of some hostile band.

In excavating a place for a building in this town a few years since, two or three large bones were found fifteen feet below the surface, in a fissure between two rocks. They were not as large as the bones of the mammoth, but were larger than those of any known species of living animal of this continent.

Five miles below Paris, on Stoner, a cave has been recently discovered, containing a number of skeletons in a good state of preservation. The crania is of Indian conformation, and one of them appears to have been pierced by a rifle ball. It is highly probable that these are the relics of some of the hostile Indians that were killed in the siege of Hinkson's station, a few miles below, as it is well remembered the same band of British and Indians encamped in the vicinity of this cave after the reduction of Hinkson's station, while on their march to attack Martin's station, which was located on Stoner, about three miles below Paris.


Ancient Work in Bourbon County, Kentucky


This work, which seems incontestibly of a defensive character, is situated on Stoner creek, at the mouth of Flat Run, in Bourbon County, Kentucky. The wall throughout is composed of earth, and is slight, not exceeding three or four feet in height. A number of mounds and excavations occur within the enclosure, together with other remains, consisting of raised outlines, two or three feet broad and one foot high. These are indicated by the letter A, and are denominated "remains of dwellings" by Prof Rafinesque, from whose work we make the sketch above. Twenty of them are found within, and fourteen without the walls; the latter occupying the point of land to the north of the enclosure. The larger one is called "the palace" by our fanciful authority, and is represented to be eighty feet long: by seventy-five broad. To the north of "the palace" is an elliptical, hollow area, fifteen feet deep; it is indicated by the letter C. A number of irregular excavations are marked by the letter D. The Lexington road passes through this work.

The Kentucky Wesleyan University, at Millersburg, Bourbon County, was established in 1866, as the continuation or successor of the Millersburg seminary, established in 1852 by Rev. John Miller, M.D. It is under the care of several conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, but is not so well sustained as it ought to be by a church so powerful in numbers, intelligence, and wealth.

The First Survey of Land within the present boundaries of Bourbon County was probably made by Col. John Floyd, in June, 1775. The Land Office records show that during that month he was surveying both on "Licking creek" and on the waters of Elkhorn. James Douglass, spoken of on the next page, on June 14, 1774, surveyed 1,000 acres for James McDowell, of Va., on a "south fork of Licking creek," which was probably in now Montgomery County, but may have been in Bourbon.

The Howard Family
In February 1856, were living, in Bourbon County, the parents and 8 out of 9 children of a family without a parallel in the known world, for their size, height, weight, good health, age, and strength, suggestive of the Bible record in Genesis vi, 4: "There were giants in the earth in those days." The father, then in his 70th year, was brought to Kentucky when quite young; and raised, in Bourbon County, his family of six sons and three daughters, whose height, weight, and aggregate age are here given:

Males--Height--Weight
Father--6 feet, 4 in.--200 lbs.
Thomas--6 feet, 4 in.--230 lbs.
James--6 feet, 6 in.--215 lbs.
John--6 feet, 11˝ in.--266 lbs.
Elijah--6 feet, 3 in.--210 lbs.
Matthew--6 feet, 6 in.--220 lbs.
Eli--6 feet, 6˝ in.--197 lbs.
Total, 45 feet, 5 in. 1,538 lbs.

Females--Height--Weight
Mother--6 feet, ˝ in.--285 lbs.
Sarah--6 feet, 2 in.--165 lbs.
Mary--6 feet, 2 in.--150 lbs.
Daughter (dec’d)--6 feet, 3 in.--160 lbs.
Total, 24 feet, 7˝ in. 760 lbs.

The family, 11 in number, in the aggregate measured 70 feet ˝ inch in height, weighed 2,298 pounds, and the sum of their entire ages then was 557 years. The computed strength of the father and six sons was 6,300 pounds. At that date (1856) there were several grandchildren over 6˝ feet high, and still growing. The mother, Mrs. Katy Howard, nee Current, died, aged 88, on May 14, 1870, near Ruddell's Mills, where she had lived for 60 years, 7 children surviving her. She had 12 brothers and sisters, each over 6 feet high.

The First Corn ever raised in Bourbon County was in 1775, by John Cooper, near Hinkston creek. Living alone in his cabin, he was killed by Indians on July 7, 1775. In 1776 Michael Stoner (on the place where Samuel Clay lived for many years), Thomas Whitledge, James Kenny, and several others raised corn, a quarter of an acre to two acres each.

Abandoned
Hinkson's settlement, on Licking (since called Hinkston's creek,) not then being fortified against the Indians, was abandoned in July, 1776, because of Indian depredations and murders. John Hinkson and 18 other settlers reached Boonesboro, July 20, 1770, on their way back to Virginia, and caused a panic there, which induced 10 men from that fort to join them leaving only 30 men to protect that exposed point.

The First Court in Bourbon County was held May 16, 1786, at the residence of James Garrard (near Talbott's Station, 4 miles north of Paris), by the following: James Garrard (afterwards governor of Kentucky), John Edwards (afterwards U. S. senator), Thos. Swearingen, Ben. Harrison, John Hinkson, Alvin Montjoy, Thos. Waring, Edward Waller, and John Gregg. John Edwards was appointed clerk, and Ben. Harrison sheriff. An order was made regulating the rates of tavern keeping, as follows: Whisky per gallon 10 shillings, brandy and Continent rum each 15s., West India rum and wine each 24s.; cold dinner 1s., warm dinner 1s. 6d.; breakfast 1s., and if with tea, coffee, or chocolate 3d additional; lodging in clean sheets 6d; corn per gallon 6d. The courts continued to be held at Gov. Garrard's residence for several years.

Among the oldest records of Bourbon County before 1789, are several suits against Daniel Boone, then a resident of Maysville, and against Simon Kenton, a resident of Washington, both places now in Mason County, which was then a part of Bourbon. The old pioneers were not money-wise, and could not always pay their debts promptly; judgments went against them. James Douglass, a surveyor from Williamsburg, Virginia, who in 1773 visited Big Bone Lick, in Boone County, and made some surveys and explored up the Kentucky River and towards Mercer County, and in 1774 again visited the state and executed many surveys on the waters of Elkhorn, Hickman, and Jessamine creeks, finally settled in Bourbon County. He was one of the first grand jury, in the first court of quarter sessions, after the admission of Kentucky into the Union as a state, on June 18, 1793, but died soon after. Thomas Kennedy came to Kentucky in 1776, and first built a cabin on Kennedy's creek, which was named after him. He assisted Michael Stoner, the same who, in 1774, in company with Daniel Boone made the extraordinary trip from Virginia through the Wilderness to the Falls of the Ohio, by order of Gov. Dunmore, to conduct into the settlements a party of surveyors in building a cabin in 1776, upon Stoner's fork of Licking, now Stoner creek. At that time they lived for three months without either bread or salt, a circumstance which now would seem as remarkable as the manner in which the father of Thomas Kennedy, Dr. John Kennedy, became an American; when a boy of six or seven years, he and several other boys were kidnapped from the shore of Ireland, brought to the colony of Maryland, and sold for a term of years, which term they faithfully served out. From a letter of date February 16, 1781, at Bedford County, Virginia, from John Kennedy (grandfather of the present Eli M. Kennedy), to his brother, said Thomas, directed to "Strode's Fort, on Licking," during the war of the Revolution, it appears that in August, 1781, a draft for regular soldiers took every fifteenth man, and another draft was then pending (February 1781) for every thirteenth man. Before that drawing of names took place, a British force was announced as "within a day's ride," and John Kennedy was summoned to join, in less than three hours, the troops designed to resist the invaders. He was taken prisoner, shortly after, at Guilford Court House, North Carolina, placed "on board a British prison-ship, and literally starved to death!" The same letter conveys intelligence of the escape from captivity at Detroit of three young men who had been taken prisoners at the surrender of Martin's and Ruddles Stations in this county, on June 22, 1780 (see full account under the head of Harrison County); they left the other prisoners, who had been spared from butchery, comfortably settled in the neighborhood of Detroit, and treated very kindly by Col. Byrd, the commander of the expedition which captured them.

Stations
The "improvements" above referred to always included a cabin; but these cabins were very temporary in their construction, seldom being a sufficient protection against the weather to justify living in them, John Martin's cabin, on Stoner, 3 miles below Paris, grew into a "station" or cluster of cabins arranged for defense; as did, also, that of John Hinkson, with an undesigned addition of a "t" to the name, the station and the creek both being called Hinkston after him. Isaac Ruddle actually originated and erected the station, in 1779, which included Hinkson's cabin of 1775; and it has been more generally known as Ruddle's station, (latterly spelled Ruddell) although indiscriminately called by either name. Miller's, near Millersburg, Huston's or Houston's on the site of Paris, Cane Ridge, and probably one at or near Lowe's, on the Ky. Central railroad, were the other stations, in or before 1790.

The First Church in Bourbon County was Presbyterian, organized at Paris in 1787 by Rev. Andrew McClure, who had been preaching in the place occasionally for three years. It is possible that a Baptist church may have been organized before, but we know of no written record that will prove it. During 87 years, from 1787 to 1874, 27 ministers in all preached to the Presbyterian churches (of which during 25 years there were two) in pastorates varying from six months to 8, 10, and 22 years in length. In one revival in 1818, over 100 persons were added to the membership, 134 in another in 1828, 39 in 1833, 39 in 1838, 22 in 1842, and 34 in 1843. Of young men reared in the church and sent out as ministers, one (Rev. Wm. Alexander) has been a missionary in the Sandwich Islands for over forty years, and has lived and labored through the conversion of those Islands from barbarism to Christianity.

Practical Joke on the President
When Gen. Jackson passed through Paris in 1829, enroute to be inaugurated president, some Adams men changed the sign-board, east of town, so as to make the "To Maysville" sign point to Mountsterling. The general and party passed on towards the latter place some distance, before discovering the mistake. It was afterwards claimed that this was, in great part, the cause of the old General's vetoing the Maysville road bill.

At a period when there were but few settlers in the county, a band of Indians, numbering about twenty, ventured into it, for the purpose of stealing horses. A party of a dozen hunters followed their trail, and overtook them on Stoner, a few miles above Paris, and fired a volley of rifle balls into their camp, which killed one of their number and wounded two or three more. The Indians then fled; but after a short interval, contrary to their usual custom, they came back, and fired in turn upon the hunters while they were engaged in securing their stolen horses. Both parties then took trees, and the fight was continued obstinately for a long time. Finally the ammunition of the whites failed, and being nearly all wounded, they were obliged to leave the Indians masters of the field. In this skirmish, which was the last that took place in Bourbon, it was supposed the Indians lost half their number in killed and wounded. The hunters lost but one killed, (Frank Hickman, it is believed was his name), whose skeleton was afterwards identified by the initials on his knee buckles.

In June, 1780, Martin's station, in this county, was captured by a large body of Canadians and Indians, under Colonel Byrd, an officer of the British army. For the particulars of the expedition, and the capture of Ruddle's and Martin's stations, see Harrison County.

On the night of the 11th of April, 1787, the house of a widow, named Skaggs, on Cooper's run, in this county, became the scene of an adventure of thrilling interest. She occupied what is generally called a double cabin, in a lonely part of the county, one room of which was tenanted by the old lady herself, together with two grown sons, and a widowed daughter, at that time suckling an infant, while the other was occupied by two unmarried daughters from sixteen to twenty years of age, together with a little girl not more than half grown. The hour was 11 o'clock at night. One of the unmarried daughters was still busily engaged at the loom, but the other members of the family, with the exception of one of the sons, had retired to rest. Some symptoms of an alarming nature had engaged the attention of the young man for an hour before anything of a decided character took place.

The cry of owls was heard in the adjoining wood, answering each other in rather an unusual manner. The horses, which were enclosed as usual in a pound near the house, were more than commonly excited, and by repeated snorting and galloping, announced the presence of some object of terror. The young man was often upon the point of awakening his brother, but was as often restrained by the fear of incurring ridicule and the reproach of timidity, at that time an unpardonable blemish in the character of a Kentuckian. At length hasty steps were heard in the yard, and quickly afterwards, several loud knocks at the door, accompanied by the usual exclamation, "who keeps house?" in very good English.

The young man, supposing from the language, that some benighted settlers were at the door, hastily arose, and was advancing to withdraw the bar which secured it, when his mother, who had long lived upon the frontiers, and had probably detected the Indian tone in the demand for admission, instantly sprung out of bed, and ordered her son not to admit them, declaring that they were Indians. She instantly awakened her other son, and the two young men seizing their guns, which were always charged, prepared to repel the enemy. The Indians finding it impossible to enter under their assumed characters, began to thunder at the door with great violence, but a single shot from a loop hole, compelled them to shift the attack to some less exposed point; and, unfortunately, they discovered the door of the other cabin, which contained the three daughters. The rifles of the brothers could not be brought to bear upon this point, and by means of several rails taken from the yard fence, the door was forced from its hinges, and the three girls were at the mercy of the savages. One was instantly secured, but the eldest defended herself desperately with a knife which she had been using at the loom, and stabbed one of the Indians to the heart, before she was tomahawked.

In the meantime the little girl, who had been overlooked by the enemy in their eagerness to secure the others, ran out into the yard, and might have affected her escape, had she taken advantage of the darkness and fled, but instead of that the terrified little creature ran around the house wringing her hands, and crying out that her sisters were killed. The brothers, unable to hear her cries, without risking everything for her rescue, rushed to the door and were preparing to sally out to her assistance, when their mother threw herself before them and calmly declared that the child must be abandoned to its fate; that the sally would sacrifice the lives of all the rest without the slightest benefit to the little girl. Just then the child uttered a loud scream, followed by a few faint moans, and all was again silent. Presently the crackling of flames was heard, accompanied by a triumphant yell from the Indians, announcing that they had set fire to that division of the house which had been occupied by the daughters, and of which they held undisputed possession.

The fire was quickly communicated to the rest of the building, and it became necessary to abandon it, or perish in the flames. In the one case there was a possibility that some might escape; in the other, their fate would be equally certain and terrible. The rapid approach of the flames cut short their momentary suspense. The door was thrown open, and the old lady, supported by her eldest son, attempted to cross the fence at one point, while her daughter carrying her child in her arms, and attended by the younger of the brothers, ran in a different direction. The blazing roof shed a light over the yard but little inferior to that of day, and the savages were distinctly seen awaiting the approach of their victims. The old lady was permitted to reach the stile unmolested, but in the act of crossing, received several balls in her breast, and fell dead. Her son, providentially, remained unhurt, and by extraordinary agility, effected his escape.

The other party succeeded also in reaching the fence unhurt, but in the act of crossing, were vigorously assailed by several Indians, who throwing down their guns, rushed upon them with their tomahawks. The young man defended his sister gallantly, firing upon the enemy as they approached, and then wielding the butt of his rifle with a fury that drew their whole attention upon himself, and gave his sister an opportunity of effecting her escape. He quickly fell, however, under the tomahawks of his enemies, and was found at daylight, scalped and mangled in a shocking manner. Of the whole family, consisting of eight persons, when the attack commenced, only three escaped. Four were killed upon the spot, and one (the second daughter) carried off as a prisoner.

The neighborhood was quickly alarmed, and by daylight about thirty men were assembled under the command of Colonel Edwards. A light snow had fallen during the latter part of the night, and the Indian trail could be pursued at a gallop. It led directly into the mountainous country bordering upon Licking, and afforded evidences of great hurry and precipitation on the part of the fugitives. Unfortunately, a hound had been permitted to accompany the whites, and as the trail became fresh and the scent warm, she followed it with eagerness, baying loudly and giving the alarm to the Indians. The consequences of this imprudence were soon displayed. The enemy finding the pursuit keen, and perceiving that the strength of the prisoner began to fail, instantly sunk their tomahawks in her head, and left her, still warm and bleeding, upon the snow.

As the whites came up, she retained strength enough to wave her hands in token of recognition, and appeared desirous of giving them some information with regard to the enemy, hut her strength was too far gone. Her brother sprung from his horse and knelt by her side, endeavoring to stop the effusion of blood, but in vain. She gave him her hand, muttered some inarticulate words, and expired within two minutes after the arrival of the party. The pursuit was renewed with additional ardor, and in twenty minutes the enemy was within view. They had taken possession of a steep narrow ridge, and seemed desirous of magnifying their numbers in the eyes of the whites, as they ran rapidly from tree to tree, and maintained a steady yell in their most appalling tones. The pursuers, however, were too experienced to be deceived by so common an artifice, and being satisfied that the number of the enemy must be inferior to their own, they dismounted, tied their horses, and flanking out in such a manner as to enclose the enemy, ascended the ridge as rapidly as was consistent with a due regard to the shelter of their persons.

The firing quickly commenced, and now for the first time they discovered that only two Indians were opposed to them. They had voluntarily sacrificed themselves for the safety of the main body, and had succeeded in delaying pursuit until their friends could reach the mountains. One of them was instantly shot dead, and the other was badly wounded, as was evident from the blood upon his blanket, as well as that which filled his tracks in the snow for a considerable distance. The pursuit was recommenced, and urged keenly until night, when the trail entered a running stream and was lost. On the following morning the snow had melted, and every trace of the enemy was obliterated. This affair must be regarded as highly honorable to the skill, address, and activity of the Indians, and the self-devotion of the rear guard is a lively instance of that magnanimity of which they are at times capable, and which is more remarkable in them, from the extreme caution, and tender regard for their own lives, which usually distinguishes their warriors.

A few weeks after this melancholy affair, a very remarkable incident occurred in the same neighborhood. One morning, about sunrise, a young man of wild and savage appearance suddenly arose from a cluster of bushes in front of a cabin, and hailed the house in a barbarous dialect, which seemed neither exactly Indian nor English, but a collection of shreds and patches, from which the graces of both were carefully excluded. His skin had evidently once been white, although now grievously tanned by constant exposure to the weather. His dress in every respect was that of an Indian, as were his gestures, tones, and equipments, and his age could not be supposed to exceed twenty years. He talked volubly but uncouthly, placed his hand upon his breast, gestured vehemently, and seemed very earnestly bent upon communicating something. He was invited to enter the cabin, and the neighbors quickly collected around him.

He appeared involuntarily to shrink from contact with them; his eyes rolled rapidly around with a distrustful expression from one to the other, and his whole manner was that of a wild animal, just caught, and shrinking from the touch of its captors. As several present understood the Indian tongue, they at length gathered the following circumstances, as accurately as they could be translated, out of a language which seemed to be an "omnium gatherum" of all that was mongrel, uncouth, and barbarous. He said that he had been taken by the Indians, when a child, but could neither recollect his name, nor the country of his birth. That he had been adopted by an Indian warrior, who brought him up with his other sons, without making the slightest difference between them, and that under his father's roof he had lived happily until within the last month.

A few weeks before that time, his father, accompanied by himself and a younger brother, had hunted for some time upon the waters of the Miami, about forty miles from the spot where Cincinnati now stands, and after all their meat, skins, &e., had been properly secured, the old man determined to gratify his children by taking them upon a war expedition to Kentucky. They accordingly built a bark canoe, in which they crossed the Ohio near the mouth of Licking, and having buried it, so as to secure it from the action of the sun, they advanced into the country and encamped at the distance of fifteen miles from the river. Here their father was alarmed by hearing an owl cry in a peculiar tone, which he declared boded death or captivity to themselves, if they continued their expedition; and announced his intention of returning without delay to the river.

Both of his sons vehemently opposed this resolution, and at length prevailed upon the old man to disregard the owl's warning, and conduct them, as he had promised, against the frontiers of Kentucky. The party then composed themselves to sleep, but were quickly awakened by their father, who had again been warned in a dream that death awaited them in Kentucky, and again besought his children to release him from his promise, and lose no time in returning home. Again they prevailed upon him to disregard the warning, and persevere in the march. He consented to gratify them, but declared he would not remain a moment longer in the camp which they now occupied, and accordingly they left it immediately, and marched on through the night, directing their course towards Bourbon County.

In the evening they approached a house, that which he had hailed, and in which he was now speaking. Suddenly, the desire of rejoining his people occupied his mind so strongly as to exclude every other idea, and seizing the first favorable opportunity, he had concealed himself in the bushes, and neglected to reply to all the signals which had been concerted for the purpose of collecting their party when scattered. This account appeared so extraordinary, and the young man's appearance was so wild and suspicious, that many of the neighbors suspected him of treachery, and thought that he should be arrested as a spy. Others opposed this resolution, and gave full credit to his narrative. In order to satisfy themselves, however, they insisted upon his instantly conducting them to the spot where the canoe had been buried. To this the young man objected most vehemently, declaring, that although he had deserted his father and brother, yet he would not betray them.

These feelings were too delicate to meet with much sympathy from the rude borderers who surrounded him, and he was given to understand that nothing short of conducting them to the point of embarkation, would be accepted as an evidence of his sincerity. With obvious reluctance he at length complied. From twenty to thirty men were quickly assembled, mounted upon good horses, and under the guidance of the deserter, they moved rapidly towards the mouth of Licking. On the road, the young man informed them that he would first conduct them to the spot where they had encamped when the scream of the owl alarmed his father, and where an iron kettle had been left concealed in a hollow tree. He was probably induced to do this from the hope of delaying the pursuit so long as to afford his friends an opportunity of crossing the river in safety.

But if such was his intention, no measure could have been more unfortunate. The whites approached the encampment in deep silence, and quickly perceived two Indians, an old man and a boy, seated by a fire, and busily employed in cooking some venison. The deserter became much agitated at the sight of them, and so earnestly implored his countrymen not to kill them, that it was agreed to surround the encampment, and endeavor to secure them as prisoners. This was accordingly attempted, but so desperate was the resistance of the Indians, and so determined were their efforts to escape, that the whites were compelled to fire upon them, and the old man fell mortally wounded, while the boy, by an incredible display of address and activity, was enabled to escape. The deserter beheld his father fall, and throwing himself from his horse, he ran up to the spot where the old man lay, bleeding but still sensible, and falling upon his body, besought his forgiveness for being the unwilling cause of his death, and wept bitterly.

His father evidently recognized him, and gave him his hand, but almost instantly afterwards expired. The white men now called upon him to conduct them at a gallop to the spot where the canoe was buried, expecting to reach it before the Indian boy, and intercept him. The deserter in vain implored them to compassionate his feelings. He urged that he had already sufficiently demonstrated the truth of his former assertions, at the expense of his father's life, and earnestly entreated them to permit his younger brother to escape. His companions, however, were inexorable. Nothing but the blood of the young Indian would satisfy them, and the deserter was again compelled to act as a guide. Within two hours they reached the designated spot. The canoe was still there, and no track could be seen upon the sand, so that it was evident that their victim had not yet arrived.

Hastily dismounting, they tied their horses and concealed themselves within close rifle shot of the canoe. Within ten minutes after their arrival, the Indian appeared in sight, walking swiftly towards them. He went straight to the spot where the canoe had been buried, and was in the act of digging it up, when he received a dozen balls through his body, and leaping high into the air, fell dead upon the sand. He was instantly scalped and buried where he fell, without having seen his brother, and probably without having known the treachery by which he and his father had lost their lives. The deserter remained but a short time in Bourbon, and never regained his tranquility of mind. He shortly afterwards disappeared, but whether to seek his relations in Virginia or Pennsylvania, or whether disgusted by the ferocity of the whites, he returned to the Indians has never yet been known. He was never heard of afterwards.*

Captain Garrard's Troop
We copy the "Muster roll of a troop of volunteer state dragoons, for twelve months, under command of Captain William Garrard, of Major James V. Ball's squadron, in the service of the United States from date of the last muster (October 31, 1812), to the 31st December, 1812, inclusive," with the remarks appended to each name. The roll is certified as correct, and the remarks as "accurate and just," by the officers. The roll will awaken old reminiscences, and will be examined by many of our readers with great interest,

Officers
William Garrard, Captain, frost bitten.
Edmund Basye, 1st Lieut, frost bitten and wounded.
David M. Hickman, 2nd frost bitten, wounded.
Thos. H. McClanahan, Cornet, frost bitten.
Chas. S. Clarkson. 1st Serg't, sick on furlough.
William Barton, 2nd sick on furlough.
John Clark, 3rd Serg't, died Nov. 15, 1812.
Benj. W. Edwards, 4th Serg't, Serg't Major.
Thomas Barton, frost bitten.
James Benson, 1st Corporal, sick on furlough.
Wm. Walton, 2nd Corporal, frost bitten.
Jesse Todd, 3rd Corporal, sick, absent.
Jno. S. Bristow, 4th Corporal, frostbitten.
Joseph McConnell, Farrier, wounded December 18.
Ephraim Wilson, Trumpeter, frost bitten.
William Daviss, Saddler, frost bitten, resigned November 20.

Privates
John Finch, frost bitten, appointed Sergeant
William Beneer, present fit for duty.
David B. Langhorn, frost bitten.
John Wynne, sick, absent.
William Mountjoy, frost bitten.
Samuel Henderson, frost bitten.
Henry Wilson, wounded Dec. 18th, 1812.
William Jones, sick on furlough.
John Terrill, frost bitten.
Walter Woodyard, frost bitten.
Moses Richardson, frost bitten, wounded 18th December.
Jacob Shy, frost bitten.
Lewis Duncan, sick on furlough.
Robert Thomas, frost bitten.
Jacob Counts, absent on furlough.
John Snoddy, frost bitten.
Thomas Bedford, killed in action 18th December.
James Finch, frost bitten and sick.
Walker Thornton, present fit for duty.
Thomas Eastin, wounded on the 18th December.
Gerrard Robinson, sick on furlough.
William M. Baylor, frost bitten.
Alexander Scott, frost bitten.
William Scott, do., wounded December 18.
James Clark frost bitten, sick.
Roger P. West, burnt by the explosion of powder.
Frederick Loring, frost bitten.
Thomas Barton, frost bitten.
John Baseman, frost bitten.
Jesse Bowlden, frost bitten.
John Funston, frost bitten.
James Johnston, frost bitten.
John Layson, frost bitten.
Will. B. Northcutt, frost bitten.
Jonathan Clinkenbeard, frost bitten.
Thomas Webster, wounded on the 18th December.
Abel C. Pepper, frost bitten and sick.
Beverly Brown, killed in action 18th December.
Edward Waller, fit for duty.
Gustavus E. Edwards, wounded, frost bitten.
Stephen Barton, wounded, frost bitten.
Stephen Bedford, wounded.
John M. Robinson, wounded.
Jacob Sharrer, sick on furlough.
Isaac Sanders, rejoined 26th November.
James Brown, frost bitten.
Henry Towles, sick on furlough.
John Metcalfe, frost bitten.
Stephen Owen, frost bitten.
James Conn, sick on furlough.
Jacob Thomas, frost bitten.
William A. Lentharp, not yet Joined the troop.
Nathaniel Hill, not yet Joined the troop.
Strother J. Hawkins, wounded, frost bitten.
Edward McGuire, sick on furlough.
Troy Waugh, servant, frost bitten.

The number of horses marked as killed, on the roll, is eight, and eight as wounded.


This county was the residence of Governor James Garrard, whose biographical sketch will be found under the head of Garrard County. The monument to his memory, erected by the state of Kentucky, contains the following inscription: "This marble consecrates the spot on which repose the mortal remains of Colonel James Garrard, and records a brief memorial of his virtues and his worth. He was born in the county of Stafford, in the colony of Virginia, on the 14th day of January, 1749. On attaining the age of manhood, he participated with the patriots of the day in the dangers and privations incident to the glorious and successful contest which terminated in the independence and happiness of our country. Endeared to his family, to his friends, and to society, by the practice of the social virtues of Husband, Father, Friend and Neighbor; honored by his country, by frequent calls to represent her dearest interests in her Legislative Councils; and finally by two elections, to fill the chair of the Chief Magistrate of the State, a trust of the highest confidence and deepest interest to a free community of virtuous men, professing equal rights, and governed by equal laws; a trust which, for eight successive years, he fulfilled with that energy, vigor, and impartiality which, tempered with Christian spirit of God-like mercy and charity for the frailty of men, is best calculated to perpetuate the inestimable blessings of Government and the happiness of Man. An administration which received its best reward below, the approbation of an enlightened and grateful country, by whose voice, expressed by a resolution of its general assembly in December, 1822, this Monument of departed worth and grateful sense of public service, was erected, and is inscribed. He departed this life on the 19th day of January, 1822, as he had lived, a sincere and pious christian, firm, constant and sincere in his own religious sentiments, tolerant for those who differed from him; reposing in the mercy of God, and the merits of his Redeemer, his hopes of a glorious and happy Immortality."

This county has been the nursery of many prominent, and some very distinguished men, particularly at the bar and on the bench. It was the residence of Judge Robert Trimble, of the supreme court of the United States, (see Trimble County) of Judge Mills, of the court of appeals of Kentucky and of Judge Bledsoe, who was remarkable for his forensic powers. Captain William and General James Garrard, were active soldiers in the war of 1812 both frequent representatives in the legislature, and the former for many years clerk of the Bourbon County court. Several distinguished pioneer divines were also residents of this county, who are noticed under proper heads.

The Honorable Thomas Corwin, the able and eloquent senator of Ohio, and the Rev. John P. Durbin, D. D., late president of Dickinson College, and one of the most eloquent divines in the United States, are both natives of Bourbon County.

Colonel James Smith, whose interesting narrative of his captivity in western Pennsylvania and residence among the Indians, was published many years since, and transferred, in an abridged form, to the "Sketches of Western Adventure," settled in Bourbon, seven miles above Paris, in 1788. Having been prominent in his native State, as an Indian fighter, a member of the Pennsylvania convention, and a member of her legislature, his public and private worth became speedily known in Bourbon; and in the first year of his residence, he was elected a member of the convention, that sat at Danville, to confer about a separation from the State of Virginia. From that period until 1799, with an intermission of two years only, according to his narrative, he continued to represent Bourbon County, either in convention or as a member of the general assembly. A few extracts from the narrative of Colonel Smith are subjoined. On the second evening succeeding his capture, (in the year 1755), Colonel Smith arrived with his captors at Fort Du Quesne, now Pittsburgh. When within half a mile of the fort, they raised the scalp halloo, and fired their guns. The garrison was instantly in commotion, the cannon were fired, the drums were beaten, and the French and Indians ran out in great numbers to meet the party and partake of their triumph. Smith was instantly surrounded by a multitude of savages, painted in various colors, and shouting with delight. They rapidly formed in two long lines, and brandishing their hatchets, ramrods, switches, etc. called aloud upon him to run the gauntlet.

"Never having heard of this Indian ceremony before, he stood amazed for some time, not knowing what to do; one of his captors explained to him, that he was to run between the two lines, and receive a blow from each Indian as he passed, concluding his explanation by exhorting him to "run his best," as the faster he run the sooner the affair would be over This truth was very plain; and young Smith entered upon his race with great spirit, he was switched very handsomely along the lines, for about three-fourths of the distance, the stripes only acting as a spur to greater exertions, and he had almost reached the opposite extremity of the line, when a tall chief struck him a furious blow with a club upon the back of the head, and instantly felled him to the ground. Recovering himself in a moment, he sprung to his feet and started forward again, when a handful of sand was thrown in his eyes, which, in addition to the great pain, completely blinded him. He still attempted to grope his way through; but was again knocked down and beaten with merciless severity.

He soon became insensible under such barbarous treatment, and recollected nothing more, until he found himself in the hospital of the fort, under the hands of a French surgeon, beaten to a jelly, and unable to move a limb. Here he was quickly visited by one of his captors, the same who had given him such good advice, when about to commence his race. He now inquired, with some interest, if he felt "very sore." Young Smith replied, that he had been bruised almost to death, and asked what he had done to merit such barbarity. The Indian replied that he had done nothing, but that it was the customary greeting of the Indians to their prisoners; that it was something like the English "how d'ye do!" and that now all ceremony would be laid aside, and he would be treated with kindness."

Smith was still a captive and at Fort Du Quesne, when General Braddock was defeated, the same year, and nearly the whole of his army cut down, or dragged into captivity, and reserved for a more painful death.

"About sunset, [on the day of battle] he heard at a distance the well-known scalp halloo, followed by wild, quick, joyful shrieks, and accompanied by long continued firing. This too surely announced the fate of the day. About dusk, the party returned to the fort, driving before them twelve British regulars, stripped naked and with their faces painted black an evidence that the unhappy wretches were devoted to death. Next came the Indians displaying their bloody scalps, of which they had immense numbers, and dressed in the scarlet coats, sashes, and military hats of the officers and soldiers. Behind all came a train of baggage horses, laden with piles of scalps, canteens, and all the accoutrements of British soldiers. The savages appeared frantic with joy, and when Smith beheld them entering the fort, dancing, yelling, brandishing their red tomahawks, and waving their scalps in the air, while the great guns of the fort replied to the incessant discharge of rifles without, he says, that it looked as if h__ll had given a holiday, and turned loose its inhabitants upon the upper world. The most melancholy spectacle was the band of prisoners. They appeared dejected and anxious. Poor fellows! They had but a few months before left London, at the command of their superiors, and we may easily imagine their feelings, at the strange and dreadful spectacle around them. The yells of delight and congratulation were scarcely over, when those of vengeance began. The devoted prisoners, British regulars, were led out from the fort to the banks of the Alleghany, and to the eternal disgrace of the French commandant were there burnt to death, one after another, with the most awful tortures. Smith stood upon the battlements and witnessed the shocking spectacle. The prisoner was tied to a stake with his hands raised above his head, stripped naked, and surrounded by Indians. They would touch him with red hot irons, and stick his body full of pine splinters and set them on fire, drowning the shrieks of the victim in the yells of delight with which they danced around him. His companions in the meantime stood in a group near the stake, and had a foretaste of what was in reserve for each of them. As fast as one prisoner died under his tortures, another filled his place, until the whole perished. All this took place so near the fort, that every scream of the victims must have rung in the ears of the French. Colonel Smith has an article in his pamphlet on the manners and customs of the Indians, their traditions and religious sentiments, their police or civil government, etc. The following extracts must suffice:

"Their traditions are vague, whimsical, romantic, and many of them scarce worth relating; and not any of them reach back to the creation of the world. They tell of a squaw that was found when an infant, in the water, in a canoe made of bull-rushes; this squaw became a great prophetess and did many wonderful things; she turned water into dry land, and at length made this continent, which was, at that time, only a very small island, and but a few Indians in it. Though they were then but few, they had not sufficient room to hunt; therefore this squaw went to the water side, and prayed that this little island might be enlarged, the great Being then heard her prayer, and sent great numbers of water tortoises and muskrats, which brought with them mud and other materials, for enlarging this island, and by this means, they say, it was increased to the size that it now remains; therefor they say, that the white people ought not to encroach upon them, or take their land from them, because their great grand-mother made it. They say that, about this time, the angels or the heavenly inhabitants, as they call them, frequently visited them and talked with their forefathers; and gave directions how to pray, and how to appease the great Being when he was offended They told them they were to offer sacrifice, burnt tobacco, buffalo and deer bones; but that they were not to burn bear or raccoon bones in sacrifice."

"The Indians, generally, are of opinion that there are a great number of inferior Deities, which they call Carreyagaroona, which signifies the Heavenly inhabitants. These beings, they suppose, are employed as assistants in managing the affairs of the universe, and in inspecting the actions of men; and that even the irrational animals are engaged in viewing their actions, and bearing intelligence to the gods. The eagle, for this purpose, with her keen eye, perched on the trees around their camp in the night; therefore, when they observe the eagle or the owl near, they immediately offer sacrifice, or burn tobacco, that they may have a good report to carry to the gods. They say that there are also great numbers of evil spirits, which they call Onasahroona, which signifies the inhabitants of the Lower Region. These spirits are always going after them, and setting things right, so that they are constantly working in opposition to each other. Some talk of a future state, but not with any certainty; at best, their notions are vague and unsettled. Others deny a future state altogether, and say that after death they neither think nor live."

"I have often heard of Indian kings, but never saw any. How any term used by Indians in their own tongue, for the chief man of a nation, could be rendered king, I know not, The chief of a nation is neither the supreme ruler, monarch or potentate: He can neither make war or peace, league or treaties: He cannot impress soldiers or dispose of magazines; He cannot adjourn, prorogue or dissolve a general assembly, nor can he refuse his assent to their conclusions, or in any manner control them. With them, there is no such thing as hereditary succession, title of nobility or royal blood, even talked of. The chief of a nation, even with the consent of his assembly, or council, cannot raise one shilling of tax off the citizens, but only receive what they please to give as free and voluntary donations. The chief of a nation has to hunt for his living, as any other citizen."


Benjamin Mills was born in the county of Worcester, on the eastern shore of Maryland, January 12th, 1779. While he was quite young, his family immigrated to the vicinity of Washington, Pennsylvania, where he obtained his education, and engaged in the study of medicine. While yet a youth, he was called to the presidency of Washington Academy, an institution which was soon after erected into Washington College, and which has sent from its walls a number of prominent public men. Having removed with his father to Bourbon County, Kentucky, and relinquished the study of medicine for that of the law, in 1805 or '06, he commenced in Paris the practice of the latter profession. His abilities and diligence soon ensured him, in his own and the adjacent counties, an extensive practice. For several years he was elected to represent the county of Bourbon in the legislature, and in 1816 failed of an election to the senate of the United States, in competition with Isham Talbot, Esq., by only three votes. In 1817, to relieve himself from an oppressive and injurious practice of the law, he accepted the appointment of judge in the Montgomery circuit. In the succeeding year, by the unanimous request of the Fayette bar, he was transferred to that circuit. In 1830, he was elevated to a seat on the bench of the court of appeals, which he filled with great firmness, through a period of extraordinary excitement with reference to the judiciary of the State, till he retired in 1828. Having resigned this post, he removed from Paris to Frankfort, to engage again in the practice of the law in the higher courts of the State. Success commensurate with his wishes again crowned his labors, till the morning of the 6th of December, 1831, when, by an apoplectic stroke, his mortal existence was terminated. As a man. Judge Mills was never remarkably popular. Though kind and faithful in every relation of life, he aimed, by a course of firm and inflexible integrity, rather to command the approbation than to win the affections of his fellow men. He was, to a very great extent, a self-made man, and affords a fine example of the ennobling tendency of republican institutions, and an encouragement to all meritorious young men who are struggling in obscurity and poverty.

As a practitioner of the law, by a profound and thorough knowledge of its principles, and the most approved forms of practice, he soon rose to eminence. As a public speaker, he was clear, logical and forcible; but not possessing a fine voice, and seldom using the ornaments of rhetoric, he was less admired as an orator than many others.

As a legislator, he was zealous and active in the promotion of wise, and the resistance of injudicious measures. Some of the most valuable provisions of the statutes of the state, had their origin in his conceptions. His efforts on the exciting new election question in 1816, will be remembered by those familiar with the politics of that day, as having a great influence in settling a construction of the constitution, which, in several instances since, has been acquiesced in with happy effects by the people of the state.

As a circuit judge, he conducted the business of the courts with uncommon industry and energy. The promptness and general accuracy of his decisions, and the perfect impartiality of his administration of justice, gained for him the respect of the orderly portion of the community. While on the bench of the court of appeals, his official acts tended not only to enlighten, but to enlarge the sphere of his profession, and to establish a system of legal polity alike favorable to the country and honorable to himself. His written opinions furnish abundant proofs of the clearness of his perceptions, the depth of his legal researches, the strength of his memory, his power of analysis, and the steadiness and sternness of his integrity.

For the last twelve years of his life, he was a member of the Presbyterian Church, and for a considerable portion of that time a ruling elder. His life, during this period, was in a high degree consistent with his profession; and the extent of his charities in the support of all the great benevolent enterprises of the day, was surprising to those who knew how limited were his means.


Jesse Bledsoe was born on the 6th of April, 1776, in Culpepper County, Virginia. His father, Joseph Bledsoe, was a Baptist preacher. His mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Miller. In early life. Judge Bledsoe's health was delicate, and from weakness in his eyes, could not be sent regularly to school. When his health and sight were restored, which was not until he had become quite a large boy, (having immigrated with an elder brother to the neighborhood of Lexington, Kentucky), he went to Transylvania seminary, and by the force of talent and assiduous industry, became a fine scholar. Few men were better or riper classical scholars; and to the day of his death it was his pleasure and delight to read the Grecian orators and poets in their original tongue. After finishing his collegiate course, he studied law, and commenced its practice with success and reputation.

Judge Bledsoe was repeatedly elected to the house of representatives of the Kentucky legislature, from the counties of Fayette and Bourbon; and was also a senator from the latter county. He was secretary of state, of Kentucky, under Gov. Charles Scott; and during the war with Great Britain, was elected a senator in the congress of the United States from the state of Kentucky, for an unexpired term, serving in that capacity for two or three years. In 1822, he was appointed by Gov. Adair, a circuit judge in the Lexington district, and removed to Lexington, where he received the appointment of professor of law in the Transylvania University. He held the offices of judge and professor for five or six years, when he resigned both, and again commenced the practice of law. In 1833, he removed to Mississippi, and in the fall of 1835 or spring of 1836, he immigrated to Texas, and commenced gathering materials for a history of the new republic. In May, 1836, he was taken sick in that portion of Texas near the line of the United States, and not far from Nacogdoches, where he died.

At an early age, he married the eldest daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Gist, who survived him.

Judge Bledsoe possessed a strong and powerful intellect, and was surpassed in popular and forensic eloquence by but few men of his day.


John Allen was born in James City County, Virginia, in 1749. When the revolutionary war broke out, he joined the American army, and devoted all his energies to the service of his country. He rose to the rank of major, and acted for some time as commissary of subsistence. At a tea party in Charleston, South Carolina, which was attended by British and American officers, the conduct of the former towards the latter became very insulting; and an officer named Davis repeated the insult so frequently as to provoke Major Allen to strike him with his sword, which instantly broke up the party. In the course of the war, Major Allen was taken prisoner by the same officer, (Davis), and what was most remarkable in the history of the times, was treated by him with special kind.

In 1781, Major Allen married Miss Jane Tandy, of Albermarle County, Virginia, and engaged in the practice of the law, having studied his profession with Colonel George Nicholas, then of Charlottesville. He immigrated to Kentucky in 1786, in company with Judge Sebastian, and located in Fayette County. In 1788, he removed to Bourbon, and settled in Paris, then containing but a few log cabins, the ground upon which the town is now reared being then a marsh, springs of water bursting from the earth in great profusion. After the organization of the State government. Major Allen was elected one of the commissioners to select a site for the permanent seat of government. During the first term of Gov. Garrard, under the old constitution. Major Allen was appointed judge of the Paris district court, the duties of which he discharged with general acceptance. In 1802, after the adoption of the present constitution, and during the second term of Gov. Garrard, he was appointed judge of the circuit court, including in his district the county of Bourbon.

Judge Allen died in the year 1816, having devoted a large portion of his long life to the service of his country, and leaving behind him a name which will be held in grateful remembrance by his posterity.


For biographical sketches of Rev. Andrew McClure, Rev. Samuel Rannells, Rev. John Lyle, Rev. John McFarland, Rev. Barton W. Stone, Gov. James Garrard, and others, see those names in the Index. Also, for further incidents, see same, title Bourbon County.


Jesse Kennedy, born on Kennedy's creek, in Bourbon County, August 11, 1787, on the same farm where he had spent his life, and died April 3, 1863, aged nearly 76, was the son of Thos. Kennedy, who in 1785 settled on and redeemed from the wilderness that farm. The latter came to Kentucky in 1776, lived for several years in the fort at Boonesboro, in 1779 assisted Capt. Strode in building "Strode's station," and in 1776 had helped Michael Stoner (a Kentucky pioneer as early as 1774) to clear and plant ''Stoner's field," at the mouth of Stoner's spring branch, noted in early times. Capt. Duncan, Michael Couchman, and the Clays came soon after, and left their mark, with honored names and generations, nearby. As a soldier in the war of 1812, as constable, justice of the peace, representative in the Ky. legislature in 1829, 1831, 1832, and 1841, occasional contributor to newspapers, citizen and Christian, Jesse Kennedy was useful, intelligent, faithful, and will be long remembered.


Joel Reid Lyle, whose portrait appears in the group of distinguished editors and publishers, was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, in Dec, 1764; was well educated in the schools of the day; in 1800 removed to Clark County, Ky., where he engaged in teaching school until 1807, when he married and settled in Paris; assisted his brother, Rev. John Lyle, as a teacher in the Bourbon academy for a time; purchased the printing materials of the Kentucky Herald (the second paper published in Kentucky), and in January 1, 1808, established the Western Citizen, continuing its editor and publisher until 1832; was succeeded by his son, Wm. C. Lyle, who was one of the editors and publishers until his health broke down in 1867. The Citizen is now the second oldest paper in the state, the Lexington Reporter having been established sometime in 1807, and afterwards united with the Observer, which was established some years later. Joel R. Lyle, although not great, was distinguished for the ability, firmness and zeal with which he maintained his principles in the political struggles through which he passed, and in the agitations of his church. He was for 27 years a ruling elder of the Presbyterian Church, a useful Christian gentleman.


Richard Hawes, the most distinguished citizen of Bourbon County now living (Dec, 1872), was born in Caroline County, Virginia, February 6, 1797. His father, Richard Hawes, a man highly esteemed for intelligence and integrity, and who was a delegate from that county for several years in the legislature of Virginia, emigrated to Kentucky in 1810. The son completed his education at Transylvania University; studied law with Robert Wickliffe, one of the great lawyers of the state, and became his copartner in the practice for several years; Nov. 13, 1818, married Hetty Morrison Nicholas (youngest daughter and child of George Nicholas, one of the most eminent lawyers and statesmen of America), who after more than 55 years of wedded life still lives to bless the world around her. In 1824, "he removed to Winchester, Clark county, to practice law; represented that county in the legislature in 1828, 1829, and 1834; represented the Ashland district, Clark, Fayette, Woodford, and Franklin counties in congress for four years, 1837-41; in 1843, removed to Paris and continued to practice law until the fall of 1861; May 10-12, 1861, took a leading part in efforts to harmonize in favor of an armed neutrality, the action of the state failing in this, and becoming a mark for the bitterness of those who were inciting to military arrests, in the fall of 1861 he took refuge in Virginia to escape imprisonment by the Federal authorities; being too old (64 years) for active field duty, he was for eight or nine months brigade commissary in the Southern army; after the death (April 6, 1862,) of Geo. W. Johnson, who had been chosen provisional governor by the convention of people of Kentucky at Russellville, Richard Hawes was unanimously elected by the legislative council of the Confederate Provisional Government of Kentucky, his successor, and served as such to the end of the war. Returning in the fall of 1865, to his home in Paris, he found his small possessions almost gone, his property having been occupied and devastated by the Federal forces; but his fellow-citizens, of all persuasions in the late struggle, greeted him with a hearty welcome. In August, 1866, they elected him, without any efforts of his own, by an almost unanimous vote, judge of the Bourbon county court for four years, and in 1870, re-elected him to the same office, which he still well and worthily fills.


Garret Davis was born in Mountsterling, Kentucky, September 10, 1801. His father, in early life a blacksmith, was a man of energy and good sense, gained a competency, and served one term in the legislature. Two of his brothers. Singleton and Amos, were brilliant young men, the latter a member of congress, 1833-35, and dying, June 5, 1835, before he could be re-elected. Garret Davis in his boyhood was a deputy in the circuit clerk's office at Paris; admitted to the bar in 1823; a representative in the legislature in 1833, '34, and '35; elected to congress from the Maysville district in 1839-41, and was thrice re-elected, 1841-47, from the Ashland district, Bourbon County having been transferred to the latter; was a member of the Constitutional convention in 1849, and so determinedly opposed to an elective judiciary that, solitary and alone, on Dec. 21, he voted against the new constitution, refused to sign it, and left the convention (Richard H. Hanson being elected to fill the vacancy, and who signed the constitution) was elected U. S. senator, 1861-67, and re-elected, 1867-73, but died September 22, 1872, aged 71 years and 12 days.

In congress he acquired distinction by his earnest advocacy of the principles and measures of the Whig party; and when about to retire in 1847, Henry Clay appealed to him as a personal favor to make the race for another term, but he had invited Chas. S. Morehead to take the field and could not honorably consent. He was a prominent leader in the "Native American" movement, as he was afterwards in the "Know-Nothing'' or "American" party: and his anti-Catholic views, boldly and ably expressed in a speech in the Constitutional convention in 1849, gave him considerable notoriety; he was nominated in 1856 as the American party candidate for the presidency, but declined. He was nominated for lieutenant governor in 1848, on the Whig ticket with John J. Crittenden for governor, but declined; and when nominated for governor by the American party in 1855 also declined; thus he declined more good positions, even when election was certain, than most ambitious men succeed to. He was among the few leading Kentuckians who opposed secession in 1861; and up to the third year of the war, advocated the war policy of the Administration. But when it became apparent that the object of the war was less for the preservation of the Union, and more for the abolition of slavery, with characteristic fidelity to his own convictions of right he assailed the Administration and the conduct of the war as vigorously as he had supported them; from that time to his death, he zealously represented his state in the senate, and bitterly denounced the infractions of the constitution by the Radical party. Mr. Davis was remarkable for the earnestness and pertinacity with which he pressed his opinions. However much they dissent from his views, all concede that he was candid and honest, bold and fearless, a ready debater, an able lawyer, an exhaustive thinker. His was undoubtedly a high order of intellect. His eldest son and law partner, Robert Trimble Davis, has already represented Bourbon County in the legislature, for four years, 1865-69.

* Sketches of Western Adventure.


Source: History of Kentucky, Volume II, by Lewis Collins, Published by Collins & Company,
Covington, Kentucky, 1874



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